UML (Unified Modeling Language) dan Activity Diagram

Berdasarkan teori Whitten dan Bentley

Use Case Diagram


Example :


Ada dua cara untuk mengidentifikasi use case :
– Mengidentifikasi use case dari aktor 
Identifikasi aktor, pengguna sistem, dan untuk masing-masing, untuk menetapkan bagaimana mereka menggunakan sistem, apa yang mereka gunakan untuk pencapaian.
– Mengidentifikasi use case dari skenario
Skenario menggambarkan serangkaian interaksi antara pengguna dan sistem dalam rangka mencapai tujuan tertentu. skenario menggambarkan urutan tertentu peristiwa.

•The use case description is a narrative document that describes, in general terms, the required functionality of the use case. Typically it describes the use case goal and gives a general description of what usually happens, the normal course of events, adding a brief description of any minor variations.

•The use case descriptions can be categorized into two :
–High level description : these description need only document the purpose of the use case , the actor involved and give general overview of what happens
–Expanded use case : this description is more detailed and structured that the high level use case description. It should document : what happens to initiate the use case, which  actors are involved, which data has to be input, the use case output, what stored data is needed by the use case, what happens to signal the completion of the use case, minor variation in the sequences events.


Seseorang yang input informasi ke sistem atau menerima informasi dari itu
Seorang aktor merepresentasikan cara tertentu untuk menggunakan sistem; cara berinteraksi dengan sistem untuk mencapai tujuan use case.

Aktor diidentifikasi dengan mengajukan pertanyaan seperti:
Siapa yang terlibat dalam proses sistem utama seperti issuing bikes?
Siapa yang akan menggunakan sistem baru?
Siapa yang menyediakan informasi ke sistem?
Siapa yang akan menerima output dari sistem?

Type of use case relationship :
• Communication association 
– Represent by the line linking an actor to a use case.
– Shows with actors are associated with which use case.
– Each actor may be associated with many use cases and each use case may be associated with many actors.

• Include 
– Is useful where there is a chunk of behaviour that is common to several use cases.
– Rather than repeat a description of that behaviour in several use case description, the common behaviour can be split off into a separate use case which is then linked to all relavant use cases with an <<include>> relationship.

• Extend  
– Is used as way of specifying significant alternative behaviour in a use case.
– It usually documents functionality that the user can opt to use over and about the norm.

• Boundary 
– It is shown as a line round the use cases, separating them from the actors, normally it is labeled with the name of the system or subsystem.

Activity Diagram

•In activity diagram, the states are activities and the transition between them are triggered by the completion of the activity rather than by an external event

•Activity diagrams menunjukkan aliran internal kontrol dalam proses.

•Activity diagrams can be used to represent sequence, selection and iteration and they can also illustrate where different activities can be carried out in parallel.

Modelling a sequence of activities :


Example : simple activity diagram


Example : activity diagram for the ‘issue bike’ use case, showing alternative actions


Example : Modelling Iteration of activities


Example : Modeling activities that are carried out in parallel


•The information about the object that responsible can be added to this diagram by dividing diagram into vertical zones known as swimlanes.
•Example : modified activity diagram for the ‘Handle bike return’ use case, showing responsibilities for different activities through the addition of swimlanes.


My note :





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